As humans and other living organisms interact with their environment, they need to continuously sense and adapt to changes in their surroundings. In the Bayesian framework the brain is thought to continuously generate a model of the environment, containing prior beliefs (or predictions) about the external causes of sensations, and update these beliefs in the face of incoming – and often surprising – evidence. Currently, the Bayesian brain hypothesis is an increasingly widely accepted unifying theory of brain function and attracts research endeavours from psychology, neuroscience, psychiatry, and philosophy to understand its behavioural manifestations, neurobiological mechanisms, boundary conditions, and theoretical ramifications.

Two distinct but conceptually related neural phenomena studied extensively in the auditory modality, namely the mismatch negativity (MMN) and stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), have received particular attention as candidate neural correlates of predictive coding.

The research presented in this issue contributes to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms and contextual manipulations of mismatch responses, and can inform the development of suitable experimental paradigms, analysis methods, and animal models for clinical and therapeutic applications.

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